What Agreement Officially Ended World War 1 And Forced Germany To Accept Blame For The War

At first, Section 231 was not properly translated. Instead of saying “Germany takes responsibility for Germany and its allies, which cause all the losses and all the damage… “, said the federal government: “Germany admits that Germany and its allies, as perpetrators of war, are responsible for all losses and damages… ». [48] The Germans felt that they were allowing this to happen, and faith in humiliation prevailed, for the article was considered an injustice as a whole. [45] [49] Historian Wolfgang Mommsen noted that, despite public outrage, German officials were aware that “Germany`s position in this matter was not as favourable as the imperial government led German public opinion to believe during the war.” [41] Historian William Keylor noted that the two American diplomats initially believed that they had “developed a brilliant solution to the dilemma of reparation”; to appease both British and French views, as well as allied public opinion, despite the fact that Allied leaders were aware of concerns about the German willingness to pay reparations and the resulting disappointment. [53] Vance C. McCormick (Wilson`s economic adviser) emphasized this point and stated: “… The preamble is useful. We follow an unusual method of not setting a specific amount. The preamble tends to explain it and continues to prepare the public for disappointment as to what can really be assured. [54] In 1940, Dulles stated that he was surprised that the article was “plausible and considered a historical judgment on war guilt.” He also noted that “the profound significance of this article… it`s due to an accident and not to a design. [55] Dulles personally failed that the Treaty of Versaille had failed in his intentions to establish a lasting peace and considered the treaty to be one of the causes of the Second World War. In 1954, as Secretary of State of the United States and speaking with the Soviet Union about German reunification, he commented: “Efforts to lead and humiliate a nation to bankruptcy only stir up a people of strength and courage to sever ties. …

So prohibitions fuel precisely the acts that are prohibited. [56] Italy`s reaction to the treaty has been extremely negative. The country had suffered heavy losses, but had not achieved most of its main war objectives, in particular to take control of the Dalmatian and fiume coast. President Wilson rejected Italy`s demands on the basis of “national self-determination”. Britain and France, which had been forced in the latter stages of the war to redirect their own troops to the Italian front to avoid collapse, were not inclined to support Italy`s position at the peace conference.